In order to produce high quality wastewater, most advanced water recycling plants in Australia use membrane technology, specifically MF/RO (Micro Filtration and Reverse Osmosis). These technologies have high energy usage and also produce a highly saline by-product. A number of other highly effective treatment processes exist with potentially less complex and costly processes than MF/RO membranes. For example, the South Caboolture and Landsborough treatment plants are already achieving very high water quality standards without using membranes. Ozone and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) are example technologies.
This project sought to provide guidance for ozone and BAC-based treatments for the production of high quality treated wastewater. The outcomes are applicable to a number of wastewater treatment plants nationally that stand to benefit from process upgrades to produce high quality recycled water. The project worked to assess, understand and optimise BAC technologies for advanced treatment of secondary effluents by:
- Comparing their performance with other processes including life cycle impacts.
- Identifying key parameters influencing operational performance.
- Investigating mechanisms of organic carbon and micro-pollutant removal.
- Identify and quantify bacterial communities in the biofilters.
- Characterising organic matter before and after biofiltration to identify removal effectiveness.
- Identiying potential issues with residual organic matter.
- Investigating integration of biofiltration in the treatment process.
Key Publications and Outputs
- Technical Report 53, 69, and 73
- Conference papers listed on the Alliance website
- Proceedings of the Alliance Science Forums
Reungoat, J., Escher, B.I., Macova, M., Argaud, F.X., Gernjak, W. and Keller, J. (2012) Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Research 46(3), 863-872. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.064.
Reungoat, J., Escher, B.I., Macova, M., Keller, J. (2011) Biofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent: Effective removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and reduction of toxicity. Water Research.
The concepts and knowledge developed in this project are highly relevant to Ozone and BAC treatment process of both wastewater and raw water for drinking. This is especially applicable where low energy treatment is favourable, and/or in situations where disposal of a concentrated brine solution is problematic.
Professor Jurg Keller
Advanced Wastewater Management Centre
Ph: +61 7 3365 4727