Life Cycle Analysis and Integrated Modelling
Historically, water strategy has given relatively little consideration to indirect impacts on energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) or total flows of nutrients and contaminants. This project aimed to improve quantification of these influences by developing appropriate methods, process and software tools. It also sought to understand the role of water information and accounting, with regard to the ability to model these flows. The Alliances' work now enables scenario analysis and determination of optimum urban water system configurations for overall community benefit.
This project aimed to answer how urban water management options affect "total" water flows as well as related flows of nutrients, contaminants, energy use and GHG emissions. In developing modelling tools, the project was guided by the following questions:
- What are the largest energy uses and GHG emissions sources in the current South East Queensland (SEQ) urban water system? What is the significance and uncertainty of emissions? What changes are expected with planned water supply and demand options? What are the key drivers and sensitivities? What mitigation strategies can be explored? How can uncertainty be reduced? What are the tradeoffs and costs of externalities of the various options?
- What water accounting data are best suited to improve integrated urban water models? How compatible are the planned and existing measures from the SEQ Water Hub for integration? How can collected data be modified or adapted to diversify its uses? How can developments in integrated modelling and water accounts, be optimised with respect to consistency with national and international resource accounting standards to enhance their extended application and commercial viability to other contexts?
Key Publications and Outputs
- Technical Reports 14, 15, 36, 37, 42, 52 and 96 relate to energy and greenhouse gas emissions, analysis frameworks, water-related carbon emissions and life-cycle impacts
- Technical Reports 61, 81, 85, 86, 88, 92, 97 100, 101 and 104 relate to “Evaluation methods for evidence based total water cycle management project”
- Conference papers listed on the Alliance website
- Proceedings of the Alliance Science Forums
Hall, M. R., West, J., Sherman, B., Lane, J. and de Haas, D., (2011) Long-Term Trends and Opportunities for Managing Regional Water Supply and Wastewater Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, (12), 5434-5440.
Kenway, S. J., Lant, P. and Priestley, A. (2011). Quantifying the links between water and energy in cities. Journal of Water and Climate Change., 2(4), 247-259. (Copy available from author email@example.com).
Kenway, S. J., Lant, P., Priestley, A. and Daniels, P. (2011). The connection between water and energy in cities - a review. Water Science and Technology, 63(9), 1983-1990.
Kenway, S. Scheidegger, R. Larsen, T. Lant, P. Bader, H-P. (2012). Water-related energy in households: a model designed to understand the current state and simulate possible measures. Energy and Buildings. (Copy available from author firstname.lastname@example.org).
Kenway, S., J. McMahon, V. Elmer, S. Conrad, and J. Rosenblum. (In press). Managing water-related energy in future cities - a research and policy roadmap. Journal of Water and Climate Change.(Copy available from author email@example.com).
Lane, J. and Lant, P. (2012) Including N2O in ozone depletion models for LCA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 17(2):252-257. DOI:10.1007/s11367-011-0362-y.
Outcomes from this project have direct relevance to future iterations of both the SEQ Regional Plan and Water Supply Strategy, as well as to local Total Water Cycle Management Plans. This new knowledge could help find least-cost carbon-abatement options. This also has significant relevance to water service providers and regulatory authorities such as the Queensland Competition Authority and the Department of Environment and Resource Management.
Dr Shiroma Maheepala, CSIRO